The Okinawa Rail

Further Readings

Some useful books and papers on the Okinawa Rail are introduced here.
: technical : for the public (somewhat technical)
: for the public

Rail family in general

  1. Ripley, S. D. 1977. Rails of the World. A Monograph of the Family Rallidae. M. F. Feheley Publ. Ltd.
    → A monograph of the rails of the world.
  2. N. Kuroda and H. Morioka (eds.) (1989) "Sekai no Dobutsu Bunrui to Shiiku 10-II [Tsuru moku] (Animals of the World – Classification and Keeping 10-II [Gruiformes])". Dobutsusha, Tokyo. (in Japanese)
    → Provides descriptions of all species of Guiformes including rails
  3. Taylor, B. and B. Perlo 1998. Rails. A Guide to the Rails, Crakes, Gallinules and Coots of the World. Pica Press.
    → A monograph of rails of the world.

Okinawa Rail (Classification, Morphology, and Ecology)

  1. Y. Yamashina and T. Mano, 1981. A New Species of Rail from Okinawa Island. Journal of the Yamashina Institute for Ornithology 13(3): 147-152+plates 1-3.
    → Original description of the Okinawa Rail.
  2. N. Kuroda, T. Mano and K. Ozaki, 1984. Rails and their conservation – in association with the discovery of Okinawa Rail –. In T. Shibata (ed.) 50 years of Yamashina Institute for Ornithology – a 50 year commemoration publication, Yamashina Institute for Ornithology. pp. 36-57. (in Japanese)
    → Consists of "Island distribution of rails", "Phylogeny of the genus Rallus (phylogenetic position of the Okinawa Rail)", and "Discovery of Okinawa Rail and the later studies"
  3. T. Harato and K. Ozaki, 1993. Roosting Behavior of the Okinawa Rail. Journal of the Yamashina Institute for Ornithology 25(1): 40-53.
  4. H. Ikenaga and T. Gima, 1993. Vocal Repertoire and Duetting in the Okinawa Rail Rallus okinawae. Journal of the Yamashina Institute for Ornithology, 25(1): 28-39.
  5. N. Kuroda, 1993. Morpho-anatomy of the Okinawa Rail Rallus okinawae. Journal of the Yamashina Institute for Ornithology 25(1): 12-27.
  6. Yamashina Institute for Ornithology, 1996. Okinawa Rail Symposium – Current status and future prospects of research and conservation. Yamashina Institute for Ornithology. (in Japanese)
    → Proceedings of a symposium held in 1995. Includes "Discovery of a new bird species Okinawa Rail", "Morphological characteristics of Okinawa Rail", "Ecology of Okinawa Rail", "The Guam Rail Captive Breeding and Reintroduction Project – History and Status", etc.
  7. K. Ozaki (ed.), 2002. Yambarukuina (Okinawa Rail). Nihon no Tennen Kinenbutsu Dobutsu-hen (Japanese natural monument – Animals–) no. 20. Shogakuan, Tokyo. (in Japanese)
    → Morphology, ecology and conservation of Okinawa Rail are explained with figures and color photographs
  8. Yamashina Institute for Ornithology (ed.) , 2006. Warera Chikyu Kazoku Tori to Ningen (We the Earth Family – Birds and Humans). NHK Shuppan Publishing. (in Japanese)
    → Among 22 topics on birds, an article entitled "Endangered Okinawa Rail " by Kiyoaki Ozaki explains from the description to the current issues over 19 pages.
  9. Yamashina Institute for Ornithology, 2004. Heisei 16 nen Yamashina Yoshimaro Sho Zosho-shiki, Jusho Kinen Koen to Shimpojiumu, Okinawa Yambaru ni Ikiru, Yambaru Kuina ni Asu wa Aruka (2004 Yamashina Yoshimaro Award Ceremony – Memorial Lecture and Symposium – Is there a future for the Okinawa Rail living in Yambaru, Okinawa?). Yamashina Institute for Ornithology.
    → 26 pages of documents distributed at the Symposium held in September 2004. It includes articles on Okinawa Rail with many figures and color photographs. This web site was created based on this document.
  10. S. Yamagishi, T. Mano, K. Ozaki, M. Izawa, N. Kotaka, P. Wenninger, and Hiroshi Momose, 2005. Special Feature – Is there a future for the Okinawa Rail? Iden (Heredity), 29(2): 23-54.
    → Proceedings of the symposium held in September 2004. It includes "Introduction; Why Okinawa Rails now?", "Okinawa Rail – From Discovery to Description", "Distribution and Population Declines of Okinawa Rail", "Predation of Okinawa Rail by Feral Cats and Mongoose", "Deaths of Okinawa Rail by Traffic Accidents", "20 years of Guam Rail Protection", "What should we do now to protect the Okinawa Rail? (Panel Discussion)" written by the speakers based on their speech at the symposium. It also includes 4 colored frontispieces.

Okinawa Rail (Population, Distribution, etc)

  1. S. Hanawa, Y. Tsukamoto and M. Takeda, 1983. Yambaru Kuina no Bumpu-iki to Seisoku Jokyo ni kansuru Chosa Hokoku (Research Report of Distribution and Status of Okinawa Rail). Environment Agency Special Bird Species Study in 1982. (in Japanese)
  2. S. Hanawa and E. Morishita, 1986. Yambaru Kuina no Bumpu-iki to Kotaisu no Suitei ni tsuite (Estimation of Distribution and Population of Okinawa Rail" Environment Agency Special Bird Species Research in 1985. pp. 43-61. (in Japanese)
  3. K. Ozaki, T. Baba, S. Komeda, M. Kinjo, Y. Toguchi, and T. Harato, 2002. The Declining Distribution of the Okinawa Rail Gallirallus okinawae. Journal of the Yamashina Institute for Ornithology, 34(1): 136-144.
    → Reports that the southern limit of the Okinawa rail distribution has moved 10km northward in the last 15 years.
  4. N. Kotaka and Y. Sawashi, 2004. The Road-kill of the Okinawa Rail Gallirallus okinawae. Journal of the Yamashina Institute for Ornithology, 35(2): 134-143.
    → Reports that there are numerous cases of Okinawa rails being killed in traffic accidents.

Nature of Nansei Islands

  1. Y. Ito, 1995. Okinawa Yambaru no Mori – Sekaiteki na shizen wo naze mamorenai noka (Forest of Yanbaru, Okinawa – Why cannot we protect this globally important forest?). Iwanami Shoten. (in Japanese)
    → Analyzes the importance of the biota in Ryukyu islands and discusses the current status of distruction of nature"
  2. S. Ikehara and Y. Kato, 1997. Okinawa no Shizen wo Shiru (Knowing the Nature of Okinawa). Tsukiji Shokan. (in Japanese)
    → Written by researchers on topics such as geohistory and geology, biota, etc. There is a chapter entitled "Iriomote Cat and Javan Mongoose" by Masako Izawa.

Alien Species

  1. T. Hirata, 1999. Alien Species – alien species threatening the native ecosystem. Ryokufu Shuppan. (in Japanese)
    → Reportage of cases found Japan-wide where alien species are impacting the ecosystem. One chapter is dedicated for the mongoose issue in Amami Oshima Island.
  2. S. Hattori and K. Ito, 2000. Mangusu to Harujion – Inyuseibutsu tono Tatakai (Javan Mongoose and Philadelphia Fleabane – Fight against Alien Species –). Iwanami Shoten. (in Japanese)
    → History of mongoose introduction, biology of mongoose, its impact on the native species, and current measures against it.
  3. Ecological Society of Japan (ed.) 2002. Gairai Seibutsu Handobukku (Handbook of Alien Species in Japan). Chijin-shokan, Tokyo. (in Japanese)
    → Includes species accounts of alien animals and plants in Japan. The preface includes detailed discussion on the issue of alien species.

Nature of Nansei Islands (photographic books)

  1. K. Minato, 1994. Yambaru no Shizen Anettai no Mori (Nature of Yambaru – a Subtropical Forest). Heibonsha.
  2. Yambaru Branch, Wild Bird Society of Japan, 1994. Yambaru no Mori – Kagayaku Okinawa no Ikimono tachi (Forest of Yambaru – Shining living things of Okinawa. Toyokan Publishing.